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Showing posts with label Economic Glossary. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Economic Glossary. Show all posts

Thursday, October 27, 2011


Ad valorem tax:(in Latin: to the value added) - a tax based on the value (or assessed value) of property. Ad valorem tax can also be levied on imported items.

Aggregate demand is the sum of all demand in an economy. This can be computed by adding the expenditure on consumer goods and services, investment, and not exports (total exports minus total imports).

Aggregate supply is the total value of the goods and services produced in a country, plus the value of imported goods less the value of exports.

Alternative minimum tax: An IRS mechanism created to ensure that high-income individuals, corporations, trusts, and estates pay at least some minimum amount of tax, regardless of deductions, credits or exemptions. Alternative minimum tax operates by adding certain tax-preference items back into adjusted gross income. While it was once only important for a small number of high-income individuals who made extensive use of tax shelters and deductions, more and more people are being affected by it. The AMT is triggered when there are large numbers of personal exemptions on state and local taxes paid, large numbers of miscellaneous itemized deductions or medical expenses, or by Incentive Stock Option (ISO) plans.

Average propensity to consume is the proportion of income the average family spends on goods and services.

Average propensity to save is the proportion of income the average family saves (does not spend on consumption).

Average total cost is the sum of all the production costs divided by the number of units produced. See also average cost. Asymmetric Information is where one party in a transaction has less information than the other.
Balance of Payment is the summation of imports and exports made between one countries and the other countries that it trades with.

Balance of trade: The difference in value over a period of time between a country's imports and exports.

Barter system: System where there is an exchange of goods without involving money.

Base year: In the construction of an index, the year from which the weights assigned to the different components of the index is drawn. It is conventional to set the value of an index in its base year equal to 100.

Bear: An investor with a pessimistic market outlook; an investor who expects prices to fall and so sells now in order to buy later at a lower price. A Bear Market is one which is trending downwards or losing value.

Bid price: The highest price an investor is willing to pay for a stock.

Bill of exchange: A written, dated, and signed three-party instrument containing an unconditional order by a drawer that directs a drawee to pay a definite sum of money to a payee on demand or at a specified future date. Also known as a draft. It is the most commonly used financial instrument in international trade.

Birth rate: The number of births in a year per 1,000 population.

Bond: A certificate of debt (usually interest-bearing or discounted) that is issued by a government or corporation in order to raise money; the bond issuer is required to pay a fixed sum annually until maturity and then a fixed sum to repay the principal. Bonds guide.

Boom: A state of economic prosperity, as in boom times.

Break even: This is a term used to describe a point at which revenues equal costs (fixed and variable).

Bretton Woods: An international monetary system operating from 1946-1973. The value of the dollar was fixed in terms of gold, and every other country held its currency at a fixed exchange rate against the dollar; when trade deficits occurred, the central bank of the deficit country financed the deficit with its reserves of international currencies. The Bretton Woods system collapsed in 1971 when the US abandoned the gold standard.

Budget: A summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to meet them. A budget can provide guidelines for managing future investments and expenses. The budget deficit is the amount by which government spending exceeds government revenues during a specified period of time usually a year.

Bull: An investor with an optimistic market outlook; an investor who expects prices to rise and so buys now for resale later. A Bull Market is one in which prices are rising. c.i.f., abbrev: Cost, Insurance and Freight: Export term in which the price quoted by the exporter includes the costs of ocean transportation to the port of destination and insurance coverage.

Call money: Price paid by an investor for a call option. There is no fixed rate for call money. It depends on the type of stock, its performance prior to the purchase of the call option, and the period of the contract. It is an interest bearing band deposits that can be withdrawn on 24 hours notice.

Capital: Wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value. Capital is the contribution to productive activity made by investment is physical capital (machinery, factories, tools and equipments) and human capital (eg general education, health). Capital is one of the three main factors of production other two are labour and natural resources.

Capital account; Part of a nation's balance of payments that includes purchases and sales of assets, such as stocks, bonds, and land. A nation has a capital account surplus when receipts from asset sales exceed payments for the country's purchases of foreign assets. The sum of the capital and current accounts is the overall balance of payments.

Capital budget: A plan of proposed capital outlays and the means of financing them for the current fiscal period. It is usually a part of the current budget. If a Capital Program is in operation, it will be the first year thereof. A Capital Program is sometimes referred to as a Capital Budget. Capital Asset Pricing Model: A way to show the prices of securities and other risk-free assets.

Capital gains tax: Tax paid on the gain realized upon the sale of an asset. See capital gains tax for examples of tax regimes in various countries. It is a tax on profits from the sale of capital assets, such as shares. A capital loss can be used to offset a capital gain, reducing any tax you would otherwise have to pay.

Cartel: An organization of producers seeking to limit or eliminate competition among its members, most often by agreeing to restrict output to keep prices higher than would occur under competitive conditions. Cartels are inherently unstable because of the potential for producers to defect from the agreement and capture larger markets by selling at lower prices.

Census: Official gathering of information about the population in a particular area. Government departments use the data collected in planning for the future in such areas as health, education, transport, and housing.

Central bank: Major financial institution responsible for issuing currency, managing foreign reserves, implementing monetary policy, and providing banking services to the government and commercial banks.

Centrally planned economy: A planned economic system in which the production, pricing, and distribution of goods and services are determined by the government rather than market forces. Also referred to as a "non market economy." Former Soviet Union, China, and most other communist nations are examples of centrally planed economy Classical economics: The economics of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Thomas Malthus, and later followers such as John Stuart Mill. The theory concentrated on the functioning of a market economy, spelling out a rudimentary explanation of consumer and producer behaviour in particular markets and postulating that in the long term the economy would tend to operate at full employment because increases in supply would create corresponding increases in demand.

Closed economy: A closed economy is one in which there are no foreign trade transactions or any other form of economic contacts with the rest of the world.

Collateral security: Additional security a borrower supplies to obtain a loan.

Commercial Policy: encompassing instruments of trade protection employed by countries to foster industrial promotion, export diversification, employment creation, and other desired development-oriented strategies. They include tariffs, quotas, and subsidies.

Comparative advantage: The ability to produce a good at a lower cost, relative to other goods, compared to another country. With perfect competition and undistorted markets, countries tend to export goods in which they have a Comparative Advantage and hence make gains from trading

Compound interest: Interest paid on the original principal and on interest accrued from time it became due.
Consumer Surplus is the difference between the price a consumer pays and what they were prepared to pay.

Conditionality: The requirement imposed by the International Monetary Fund that a borrowing country undertake fiscal, monetary, and international commercial reforms as a condition to receiving a loan for balance of payments difficulties.

Copyright: A legal right (usually of the author or composer or publisher of a work) to exclusive publication production, sale, distribution of some work. What is protected by the copyright is the "expression," not the idea. Notice that taking another's idea is plagiarism, so copyrights are not the equivalent of legal prohibition of plagiarism.

Correlation coefficient: Denoted as "r", a measure of the linear relationship between two variables. The absolute value of "r" provides an indication of the strength of the relationship. The value of "r" varies between positive 1 and negative 1, with -1 or 1 indicating a perfect linear relationship, and r = 0 indicating no relationship. The sign of the correlation coefficient indicates whether the slope of the line is positive or negative when the two variables are plotted in a scatter plot.

Cost benefit analysis: A technique that assesses projects through a comparison between their costs and benefits, including social costs and benefits for an entire region or country. Depending on the project objectives and its the expected outputs, three types of CBA are generally recognised: financial; economic; and social. Generally cost-benefit analyses are comparative, i.e. they are used to compare alternative proposals. Cost-benefit analysis compares the costs and benefits of the situation with and without the project; the costs and benefits are considered over the life of the project.

Countervailing duties: duties (tariffs) that are imposed by a country to counteract subsidies provided to a foreign producer
Current account: Part of a nation's balance of payments which includes the value of all goods and services imported and exported, as well as the payment and receipt of dividends and interest. A nation has a current account surplus if exports exceed imports plus net transfers to foreigners. The sum of the current and capital accounts is the overall balance of payments.

Cross elasticity of demand: The change in the quantity demanded of one product or service impacting the change in demand for another product or service. E.g. percentage change in the quantity demanded of a good divided by the percentage change in the price of another good (a substitute or complement)

Crowding out: The possible tendency for government spending on goods and services to put upward pressure on interest rates, thereby discouraging private investment spending.

Currency appreciation: An increase in the value of one currency relative to another currency. Appreciation occurs when, because of a change in exchange rates; a unit of one currency buys more units of another currency. Opposite is the case with currency depreciation.

Currency board: Form of central bank that issues domestic currency for foreign exchange at fixed rates.

Currency substitution: The use of foreign currency (e.g., U.S. dollars) as a medium of exchange in place of or along with the local currency (e.g., Rupees).

Customs duty: Duty levied on the imports of certain goods. Includes excise equivalents Unlike tariffs customs duties are used mainly as a means to raise revenue for the government rather than protecting domestic producers from foreign competition.

Death rate: numbers of people dying per thousand population.

Deflation: Deflation is a reduction in the level of national income and output, usually accompanied by a fall in the general price level.
What is depreciation/ Developed country is an economically advanced country whose economy is characterized by a large industrial and service sector and high levels of income per head.

Developing country, less developed country, underdeveloped country or third world country: a country characterized by low levels of GDP and per capita income; typically dominated by agriculture and mineral products and majority of the population lives near subsistence levels.
Dumping occurs when goods are exported at a price less than their normal value, generally meaning they are exported for less than they are sold in the domestic market or third country markets, or at less than production cost.

Direct investment: Foreign capital inflow in the form of investment by foreign-based companies into domestic based companies. Portfolio investment is foreign capital inflow by foreign investors into shares and financial securities. It is the ownership and management of production and/or marketing facilities in a foreign country.

Direct tax: A tax that you pay directly, as opposed to indirect taxes, such as tariffs and business taxes. The income tax is a direct tax, as are property taxes. See also Indirect Tax.

Double taxation: Corporate earnings taxed at both the corporate level and again as a stockholder dividend
Economic growth: Quantitative measure of the change in size/volume of economic activity, usually calculated in terms of gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product(GDP).

Duopoly: A market structure in which two producers of a commodity compete with each other.

Econometrics: The application of statistical and mathematical methods in the field of economics to test and quantify economic theories and the solutions to economic problems.

Economic development: The process of improving the quality of human life through increasing per capita income, reducing poverty, and enhancing individual economic opportunities. It is also sometimes defined to include better education, improved health and nutrition, conservation of natural resources, a cleaner environment, and a richer cultural life.

Economic growth: An increase in the nation's capacity to produce goods and services.

Economic infrastructure: The underlying amount of physical and financial capital embodied in roads, railways, waterways, airways, and other forms of transportation and communication plus water supplies, financial institutions, electricity, and public services such as health and education. The level of infrastructural development in a country is a crucial factor determining the pace and diversity of economic development.

Economic integration: The merging to various degrees of the economies and economic policies of two or more countries in a given region. See also common market, customs union, free-trade area, trade creation, and trade diversion.

Economic policy: A statement of objectives and the methods of achieving these objectives (policy instruments) by government, political party, business concern, etc. Some examples of government economic objectives are maintaining full employment, achieving a high rate of economic growth, reducing income inequalities and regional development inequalities, and maintaining price stability. Policy instruments include fiscal policy, monetary and financial policy, and legislative controls (e.g., price and wage control, rent control).
Economies of Scale.

Elasticity of demand: The degree to which consumer demand for a product or service responds to a change in price, wage or other independent variable. When there is no perceptible response, demand is said to be inelastic.

Excess capacity: Volume or capacity over and above that which is needed to meet peak planned or expected demand.

Excess demand: the situation in which the quantity demanded at a given price exceeds the quantity supplied. Opposite: excess supply

Exchange control: A governmental policy designed to restrict the outflow of domestic currency and prevent a worsened balance of payments position by controlling the amount of foreign exchange that can be obtained or held by domestic citizens. Often results from overvalued exchange rates

Exchange rate: The price of one currency stated in terms of another currency, when exchanged.

Export incentives: Public subsidies, tax rebates, and other kinds of financial and nonfinancial measures designed to promote a greater level of economic activity in export industries.

Exports: The value of all goods and nonfactor services sold to the rest of the world; they include merchandise, freight, insurance, travel, and other nonfactor services. The value of factor services (such as investment receipts and workers' remittances from abroad) is excluded from this measure. See also merchandise exports and imports.

Externalities: A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services. Often "externality" refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.

Fiscal deficit is the gap between the government's total spending and the sum of its revenue receipts and non-debt capital receipts. The fiscal deficit represents the total amount of borrowed funds required by the government to completely meet its expenditure

Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditure and taxation to try to influence the level of economic activity. An expansionary (or reflationary) fiscal policy could mean: cutting levels of direct or indirect tax increasing government expenditure The effect of these policies would be to encourage more spending and boost the economy. A contractionary (or deflationary) fiscal policy could be: increasing taxation - either direct or indirect cutting government expenditure These policies would reduce the level of demand in the economy and help to reduce inflation

Fixed costs: A cost incurred in the general operations of the business that is not directly attributable to the costs of producing goods and services. These "Fixed" or "Indirect" costs of doing business will be incurred whether or not any sales are made during the period, thus the designation "Fixed", as opposed to "Variable".

Fixed exchange rate: The exchange value of a national currency fixed in relation to another (usually the U.S. dollar), not free to fluctuate on the international money market.

Foreign aid The international transfer of public funds in the form of loans or grants either directly from one government to another (bilateral assistance) or indirectly through the vehicle of a multilateral assistance agency like the World Bank. See also tied aid, private foreign investment, and nongovernmental organizations.

Foreign direct investment (FDI): Overseas investments by private multinational corporations.

Foreign exchange reserves: The stock of liquid assets denominated in foreign currencies held by a government's monetary authorities (typically, the finance ministry or central bank). Reserves enable the monetary authorities to intervene in foreign exchange markets to affect the exchange value of their domestic currency in the market. Reserves are invested in low-risk and liquid assets, often in foreign government securities.

Free trade: Free trade in which goods can be imported and exported without any barriers in the forms of tariffs, quotas, or other restrictions. Free trade has often been described as an engine of growth because it encourages countries to specialize in activities in which they have comparative advantages, thereby increasing their respective production efficiencies and hence their total output of goods and services.

Free-trade area A form of economic integration in which there exists free internal trade among member countries but each member is free to levy different external tariffs against non-member nations.

Free-market exchange rate Rate determined solely by international supply and demand for domestic currency expressed in terms of, say, U.S. dollars.

Fringe benefit: A benefit in addition to salary offered to employees such as use of company's car, house, lunch coupons, health care subscriptions etc.

Gains from trade The addition to output and consumption resulting from specialization in production and free trade with other economic units including persons, regions, or countries.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) An international body set up in 1947 to probe into the ways and means of reducing tariffs on internationally traded goods and services. Between 1947 and 1962, GATT held seven conferences but met with only moderate success. Its major success was achieved in 1967 during the so-called Kennedy Round of talks when tariffs on primary commodities were drastically slashed and then in 1994 with the signing of the Uruguay Round agreement. Replaced in 1995 by World Trade Organization (WTO).

Global warming Theory that world climate is slowly warming as a result of both MDC and LDC industrial and agricultural activities.

Gross domestic product (GDP): Gross Domestic Product: The total of goods and services produced by a nation over a given period, usually 1 year. Gross Domestic Product measures the total output from all the resources located in a country, wherever the owners of the resources live.

Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Fact book, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well being. GNP equals GDP plus net property income from abroad.
Globalisation or Globalization: The process whereby trade is now being conducted on ever widening geographical boundaries. Countries now trade across continents and companies also trade all over the world.

Human capital Productive investments embodied in human persons. These include skills, abilities, ideals, and health resulting from expenditures on education, on-the-job training programs, and medical care.

Imperfect competition: A market situation or structure in which producers have some degree of control over the price of their product. Examples include monopoly and oligopoly. See also perfect competition.

Imperfect market A market where the theoretical assumptions of perfect competition are violated by the existence of, for example, a small number of buyers and sellers, barriers to entry, nonhomogeneity of products, and incomplete information. The three imperfect markets commonly analyzed in economic theory are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition.

Import substitution A deliberate effort to replace major consumer imports by promoting the emergence and expansion of domestic industries such as textiles, shoes, and household appliances. Import substitution requires the imposition of protective tariffs and quotas to get the new industry started.

Income inequality The existence of disproportionate distribution of total national income among households whereby the share going to rich persons in a country is far greater than that going to poorer persons (a situation common to most LDCs). This is largely due to differences in the amount of income derived from ownership of property and to a lesser extent the result of differences in earned income. Inequality of personal incomes can be reduced by progressive income taxes and wealth taxes. This is measured by the Gini coefficient.

Index of industrial production: A quantity index that is designed to measure changes in the physical volume or production levels of industrial goods over time.

Inflation is the percentage increase in the prices of goods and services.

Indirect tax: A tax you do not pay directly, but which is passed on to you by an increase in your expenses. For instance, a company might have to pay a fuel tax. The company pays the tax but can increase the cost of its products so consumers are actually paying the tax indirectly by paying more for the merchandise.

Interdependence Interrelationship between economic and noneconomic variables. Also, in international affairs, the situation in which one nation's welfare depends to varying degrees on the decisions and policies of another nation, and vice versa. See also dependence.

International commodity agreement Formal agreement by sellers of a common internationally traded commodity (coffee, sugar) to coordinate supply to maintain price stability.

International Labor Organization (ILO) One of the functional organizations of the United Nations, based in Geneva, Switzerland, whose central task is to look into problems of world labor supply, its training, utilization, domestic and international distribution, etc. Its aim in this endeavor is to increase world output through maximum utilization of available human resources and thus improve levels of living.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) An autonomous international financial institution that originated in the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944. Its main purpose is to regulate the international monetary exchange system, which also stems from that conference but has since been modified. In particular, one of the central tasks of the IMF is to control fluctuations in exchange rates of world currencies in a bid to alleviate severe balance of payments problems.

International poverty line An arbitrary international real income measure, usually expressed in constant dollars (e.g., $270), used as a basis for estimating the proportion of the world's population that exists at bare levels of subsistence.

Land reform A deliberate attempt to reorganize and transform existing agrarian systems with the intention of improving the distribution of agricultural incomes and thus fostering rural development. Among its many forms, land reform may entail provision of secured tenure rights to the individual farmer, transfer of land ownership away from small classes of powerful landowners to tenants who actually till the land, appropriation of land estates for establishing small new settlement farms, or instituting land improvements and irrigation schemes.

Macroeconomic stabilization Policies designed to eliminate macroeconomic instability.

Macroeconomics: The branch of economics that considers the relationships among broad economic aggregates such as national income, total volumes of saving, investment, consumption expenditure, employment, and money supply. It is also concerned with determinants of the magnitudes of these aggregates and their rates of change over time.

Market economy: A free private-enterprise economy governed by consumer sovereignty, a price system, and the forces of supply and demand.

Market failure: A phenomenon that results from the existence of market imperfections (e.g., monopoly power, lack of factor mobility, significant externalities, lack of knowledge) that weaken the functioning of a free-market economy--it fails to realize its theoretical beneficial results. Market failure often provides the justification for government interference with the working of the free market.

Market-friendly approach: World Bank notion that successful development policy requires governments to create an environment in which markets can operate efficiently and to intervene selectively in the economy in areas where the market is inefficient (e.g., social and economic infrastructure, investment coordination, economic "safety net").

Market mechanism: The system whereby prices of stocks & shares, commodities or services freely rise or fall when the buyer's demand for them rises or falls or the seller's supply of them decreases or increases.

Market prices: Prices established by demand and supply in a free-market economy.

Merchandise exports and imports: All international changes in ownership of merchandise passing across the customs borders of the trading countries. Exports are valued f.o.b. (free on board). Imports are valued c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight).

Merchandise trade balance: Balance on commodity exports and imports.

Microeconomics: The branch of economics concerned with individual decision units--firms and households--and the way in which their decisions interact to determine relative prices of goods and factors of production and how much of these will be bought and sold. The market is the central concept in microeconomics.

Middle-income countries (MICs): LDCs with per capita income above $785 and below $9,655 in 1997 according to World Bank measures.

Mixed economic systems: Economic systems that are a mixture of both capitalist and socialist economies. Most developing countries have mixed systems. Their essential feature is the coexistence of substantial private and public activity within a single economy.

Monetary policy: The regulation of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank in order to control inflation and stabilize currency. If the economy is heating up, the central bank (such as RBI in India) can withdraw money from the banking system, raise the reserve requirement or raise the discount rate to make it cool down. If growth is slowing, it can reverse the process - increase the money supply, lower the reserve requirement and decrease the discount rate. The monetary policy influences interest rates and money supply.

Money supply: the total stock of money in the economy; currency held by the public plus money in accounts in banks. It consists primarily currency in circulation and deposits in savings and checking accounts. Too much money in relation to the output of goods tends to push interest rates down and push inflation up; too little money tends to push rates up and prices down, causing unemployment and idle plant capacity. The central bank manages the money supply by raising and lowering the reserves banks are required to hold and the discount rate at which they can borrow money from the central bank. The central bank also trades government securities (called repurchase agreements) to take money out of the system or put it in. There are various measures of money supply, including M1, M2, M3 and L; these are referred to as monetary aggregates.

Monopoly: A market situation in which a product that does not have close substitutes is being produced and sold by a single seller. See also monopsony.

Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) A set of nontariff bilateral quotas established by developed countries on imports of cotton, wool, and synthetic textiles and clothing from individual LDCs

Multinational corporation (MNC) An international or transnational corporation with headquarters in one country but branch offices in a wide range of both developed and developing countries. Examples include General Motors, Coca-Cola, Firestone, Philips, Volkswagen, British Petroleum, Exxon, and ITT. Firms become multinational corporations when they perceive advantages to establishing production and other activities in foreign locations. Firms globalize their activities both to supply their home-country market more cheaply and to serve foreign markets more directly. Keeping foreign activities within the corporate structure lets firms avoid the costs inherent in arm's-length dealings with separate entities while utilizing their own firm-specific knowledge such as advanced production techniques.

National debt: Treasury bills, notes, bonds, and other debt obligations that constitute the debt owed by the federal government. It represents the accumulation of each year's budget deficit
Public debt: Borrowing by the Government of India internally as well as externally. The total of the nation's debts: debts of local and state and national governments is an indicator of how much public spending is financed by borrowing instead of taxation

Newly industrializing countries (NICs) A small group of countries at a relatively advanced level of economic development with a substantial and dynamic industrial sector and with close links to the international trade, finance, and investment system (Argentina, Brazil, Greece, Mexico, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, and Taiwan).

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) Privately owned and operated organizations involved in providing financial and technical assistance to LDCs. See foreign aid.

Nontariff trade barrier: A barrier to free trade that takes a form other than a tariff, such as quotas or sanitary requirements for imported meats and dairy products.

Official development assistance (ODA) Net disbursements of loans or grants made on concessional terms by official agencies of member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Official exchange rate: Rate at which the central bank will buy and sell the domestic currency in terms of a foreign currency such as the U.S. dollar.

An Open economy is an economy that encourages foreign trade and has extensive financial and nonfinancial contacts with the rest of the world in areas such as education, culture, and technology. See also closed economy.
The opportunity cost is the implied cost of not doing something that could have led to higher returns.

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD):An organization of 20 countries from the Western world including all of those in Europe and North America. Its major objective is to assist the economic growth of its member nations by promoting cooperation and technical analysis of national and international economic trends.

Overvalued exchange rate An official exchange rate set at a level higher than its real or shadow value--for example, 7 Kenyan shillings per dollar instead of, say, 10 shillings per dollar. Overvalued rates cheapen the real cost of imports while raising the real cost of exports. They often lead to a need for exchange control.

Perfect competition: A market situation characterized by the existence of very many buyers and sellers of homogeneous goods or services with perfect knowledge and free entry so that no single buyer or seller can influence the price of the good or service. 

Performance budget is a budget format that relates the input of resources and the output of services for each organizational unit individually. Sometimes used synonymously with program budget. It is a budget wherein expenditures are based primarily upon measurable performance of activities.

Political economy The attempt to merge economic analysis with practical politics--to view economic activity in its political context. Much of classical economics was political economy, and today political economy is increasingly being recognized as necessary for any realistic examination of development problems.

Portfolio investment Financial investments by private individuals, corporations, pension funds, and mutual funds in stocks, bonds, certificates of deposit, and notes issued by private companies and the public agencies of LDCs. See also private foreign investment.

Poverty gap: The sum of the difference between the poverty line and actual income levels of all people living below that line.

Poverty line: A level of income below, which people are deemed poor. A global poverty line of $1 per person per day was suggested in 1990 (World Bank 1990). This line facilitates comparison of how many poor people there are in different countries. But, it is only a crude estimate because the line does not recognize differences in the buying power of money in different countries, and, more significantly, because it does not recognize other aspects of poverty than the material, or income poverty.

Price: The monetary or real value of a resource, commodity, or service. The role of prices in a market economy is to ration or allocate resources in accordance with supply and demand; relative prices should reflect the relative scarcity of different resources, goods, or services.

Price elasticity of demand: The responsiveness of the quantity of a commodity demanded to a change in its price, expressed as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price.

Price elasticity of supply: The responsiveness of the quantity of a commodity supplied to a change in its price, expressed as the percentage change in quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price.

Quota: A quota is a physical limitation on the quantity of any item that can be imported into a country, such as so many automobiles per year. Also a method for allocating limited school places by noncompetitive means--for example, by income or ethnicity.

Repo rate: This is one of the credit management tools used by the Reserve Bank to regulate liquidity in South Africa (customer spending). The bank borrows money from the Reserve Bank to cover its shortfall. The Reserve Bank only makes a certain amount of money available and this determines the repo rate. If the bank requires more money than what is available, this will increase the repo rate - and vice versa.

Revenue expenditure: This is expenditure on recurring items, including the running of services and financing capital spending that is paid for by borrowing. This is meant for normal running of governments' maintenance expenditures, interest payments, subsidies and transfers etc. It is current expenditure which does not result in the creation of assets. Grants given to State governments or other parties are also treated as revenue expenditure even if some of the grants may be meant for creating assets. Subsidy : Financial assistance (often from the government) to a specific group of producers or consumers.

Revenue receipts: Additions to assets that do not incur an obligation that must be met at some future date and do not represent exchanges of property for money. Assets must be available for expenditures. These include proceeds of taxes and duties levied by the government, interest and dividend on investments made by the government, fees and other receipts for services rendered by the government.

Stabilization policies: A coordinated set of mostly restrictive fiscal and monetary policies aimed at reducing inflation, cutting budget deficits, and improving the balance of payments. See conditionality and International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Subsidy: A payment by the government to producers or distributors in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry (e.g., as a result of continuous unprofitable operations) or an increase in the prices of its products or simply to encourage it to hire more labor (as in the case of a wage subsidy). Examples are export subsidies to encourage the sale of exports; subsidies on some foodstuffs to keep down the cost of living, especially in urban areas; and farm subsidies to encourage expansion of farm production and achieve self-reliance in food production.

Tax avoidance: A legal action designed to reduce or eliminate the taxes that one owes.

Tax base: the total property and resources subject to taxation. See also tariffs.

Tax evasion: An illegal strategy to decrease tax burden by underreporting income, overstating deductions, or using illegal tax shelters.

Terms of trade The ratio of a country's average export price to its average import price; also known as the commodity terms of trade. A country's terms of trade are said to improve when this ratio increases and to worsen when it decreases, that is, when import prices rise at a relatively faster rate than export prices (the experience of most LDCs in recent decades).

Treasury bill: A short-term debt issued by a national government with a maximum maturity of one year. Treasury bills are sold at discount, such that the difference between purchase price and the value at maturity is the amount of interest.

VAT: A form of indirect sales tax paid on products and services at each stage of production or distribution, based on the value added at that stage and included in the cost to the ultimate customer.

World Bank: An international financial institution owned by its 181 member countries and based in Washington, D.C. Its main objective is to provide development funds to the Third World nations in the form of interest-bearing loans and technical assistance. The World Bank operates with borrowed funds.

WTO: The World Trade Organization is a global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. It was set up in 1995 at the conclusion of GATT negotiations for administering multilateral trade negotiations.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Economic Glossary

Active Market
This is a term used by stock exchange which specifies the particular stock or share which deals in frequent and regular transactions. It helps the buyers to obtain reasonably large amounts at any time.

Administered Price
The administrative body e.g., the government a marketing board or a trading group determines this price. The competitive market force are not entitled to determine this price. The government fixes a price in accordance with demand supply portion in the market.

Ad-valorem Tax
Ad-valorem tax is a kind of indirect tax in which goods are taxed by their values. In the case of ad-volorem tax, the tax amount is calculated as the proportion of the price of the goods. Value added Tax (VAT) is an ad-volorem Tax.

Advanced Countries
Advanced countries are countries which are industrially advanced, having high national and per capita income and ensure high rate of capital formation. These countries possess highly developed infrastructure and apply most updated and advanced technical know-how in their productive activities. A strong and well organised financial structure is found in these advanced countries.

It means ‘merger’. As and when necessity arises two or more companies are merged into a large organisation. This merger takes place in order to effect economies, reduce competition and capture market. The old firms completely lose their identity when the merger takes place.

Appreciation means an increase in the value of something e.g., stock of raw materials or manufactured goods. It also includes an increase in the traded value of a currency. It is the antonym of Depreciation. When the prices rise due to inflation, appreciation may occur. It causes scarcity or increase in earning power.

When a person performs functions of middle man and buys and sells goods at a particular time to cash the price differences of two markets, this action is termed as arbitrage. Purchases are made in the market where price is low and at the same time, goods are sold in other market where the price are high. Thus the middleman earns profit due to price difference in two markets.

Where there is an industrial dispute, the Arbitration comes to the force. The judgement is given by the Arbitrator. Both the parties have to accept and honour the Arbitration. Arbitration is the settlement of labour disputes that takes place between employer and the employees.

When a commodity is sold by auction, the bids are made by the buyers. Whose ever makes the highest bid, gets the commodity which is being sold. The buyers make the bid
taking into consideration the quality and quantity of the commodity.

If a country is self-sufficient, it does not require the imports for the country. Autarchy is an indicator of self-sufficiency. It means that the country itself can satisfy the needs of its population without making imports from other countries.

Automation means the use of machinery & technology to replace the labour’s work. Automation increases the demand of skilled workers. Unskilled and semiskilled workers are reduced as a result of automation.

Balanced Budget
When the total revenue of the government exactly equals the total expenditure incurred by the government, the budget becomes a balanced budget. But it is a conservative view point. In present days, the welfare government has to regulate a number of economic and social activities which increase the expenditure burden on the government and results in deficit budget.

Balance of Payment
Balance of payment of a country is a systematic record of all economic transactions completed between its residents and the residents of remaining world during a year. In other words, the balance of payment shows the relationship between the one country's total payment to all other countries and its total receipts from them. Balance of payment is a comprehensive term which includes both visible and invisible items. Balance of payment not only include visible export and imports but also invisible trade like shipping, banking, insurance, tourism, royalty, payments of interest on foreign debts.

Balance of Trade
Balance of trade refers to the total value of a country's export commodities and total value of imports commodities. Thus balance of trade includes only visible trade i.e., movement of goods (exports and imports of goods). Balance of trade is a part of Balance of payment statement.

Balance Sheet
Balance sheet is a statement showing the assets and liabilities of a business at a certain date. Balance sheet helps in estimating the real financial situation of a firm.

Bank is a financial institution. It accepts funds on current and deposit accounts. It also lends money. The bank pays the cheques drawn by customers against current and deposits accounts. The bank is a trader that deals in money and credit.

Bank Draft
Banker's draft is a negotiable claim drawn upon a bank. Drafts are as good as cash. The drafts cannot be returned and unpaid. Draft is issued when a customer shows his unwillingness to accept cheque in payment for his services or mercantile goods. Bank Draft is safer than a cheque.

Bank Rate
Bank Rate is the rate of discount at which the central bank of the country discounts first class bills. It is the rate of interest at which the central bank lends money to the lower banking institutions. Bank rate is a direct quantitative method of credit control in the economy.

It implies an agreement between two countries to extend to each other specific privileges in their international trade which are not extended to others.

Birth Rate
Birth Rate (or Crude Birth Rate) is number of the births per thousand of the population during a period, usually a year. Only live births are included in the calculation of birth rate.

Black Money
It is unaccounted money which is concealed from tax authorities. All illegal economic activities are dealt with this black Money. Hawala market has deep roots with this black money. Black money creates parallel economy. It puts an adverse pressure on equitable distribution of wealth and income in the economy.

Blue Chip
It is concerned with such equity shares whose purchase is extremely safe. It is a safe investment. It does not involve any risk.

Blue Collar Jobs
These Jobs are concerned with factory. Persons who are unskilled and depend upon manual jobs that require physical strain on human muscle are said to be engaged in Blue Collar Jobs. In the age of machinery, such Jobs are on the decline these days.

It means the drift of intellectuals of a country to another country. Scientists, doctors and technology experts generally go to other prominent countries of the world to better their lot and earn huge sums of money. This Brain-Drain deprives a country of its genius and capabilities.

Bridge Loan
A loan made by a bank for a short period to make up for a temporary shortage of cash. On the part of borrower, mostly the companies for example, a business organization wants to install a new company with new equipments etc. while his present installed company / equipments etc. are not yet disposed off. Bridge loan covers this period between the buying the new and disposing of the old one.

It is a document containing a preliminary approved plan of public revenue and public expenditure. It is a statement of the estimated receipt and expenses during a fixed period, it is a comparative table giving the accounts of the receipts to be realized and of the expenses to be incurred.

Budget Deficit
Budget may take a shape of deficit when the public revenue falls short to public expenditure. Budget deficit is the difference between the estimated public expenditure and public revenue. The government meets this deficit by way of printing new currency or by borrowing.

Bull is that type of speculator who gains with the rise in prices of shares and stocks. He buys share or commodities in anticipation of rising prices and sells them later at a profit.

Bull Market
It is a market where the speculators buy shares or commodities in anticipation of rising prices. This market enables the speculators to resale such shares and make a profit.

When the government fails to check inflation, it raises income tax and the corporate tax. Such a tax is called Buoyancy. It concerns with the revenue from taxation in the period of inflation.

Business Cycle
Business cycle (also known as trade cycle) are species of fluctuations in the economic activity of organised communities. It is composed of period of good trade characterised
by rising prices and low unemployment, alternating with period of bad trade characterised by falling prices and high unemployment. Every trade cycle have five different subphases–depression, recovery, full employment, prosperity (boom) and recession.

Call Money
Call money is in the form of loans and advances which are payable on demand or within the number of days specified for the purpose.

Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting represents the process of preparing budget for a period of a year or even for several years allocating capital outlays for the various investment projects. In other words, it is the process of budgeting capital expenditure by means of an annual or longer period capital budget.

Capital-labour Ratio
Latest models of machinery and equipment raise the labour efficiency and the output is maximized. Capitallabour ratio is the amount of capital against the given labours that a firm employs. Capital-labour ratio is the ratio of capital to labour.

Capital Market
Capital market is the market which gives medium term and long term loans. It is different from money market which deals only in short term loans.

Capitalism is an economic system in which all means of production are owned by private individuals Selfprofit motive is the guiding feature for all the economic activates under capitalism. Under pure capitalism system economic conditions are regulated solely by free market forces. This system is based on ‘Laissez-faire system’ i.e., no state intervention. Sovereignty of consumer prevails in this system. Consumer behaves like a king under capitalism.

Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
The commercial banks are required to keep a certain amount of cash reserves at the central bank. This percentage amount is called CRR. It influences the commercial bank’s volume of credit because variation in CRR affects the liquidity position of the banks and hence their ability to lend.

Census gives us estimates of population. Census is of great economic importance for the country. It tells us the rate at which the total population is increasing among different age groups. In India census is done after every 10 years. The latest census in India has been done in 2001.

Central Bank
Central Bank may be defined as the apex barking and monetary institution whose main function is to control, regulate and stabilize the banking and the monetary system of the country in the national interest.

Cheque is an order in writing issued by the drawer to a bank. If the customer has sufficient amount in his account, the cheque is paid by the bank. Cheques are used in place of cash money.

Clearing Bank
Clearing bank is one which settles the debits and credits of the commercial banks. Even of the cash balances are lesser, clearing bank facilitates banking operation of the commercial bank.

Clearing House
Clearing house is an institution which helps to settle the mutual indebtedness that occurs among the members of its organisation.

Closed Economy
Closed economy refers to the economy having no foreign trade (i.e., export and import). Such economies depend exclusively on their own internal domestic resources and have
no dependence on outside world.

Producers of an industry reduce competition among themselves to raise their profits. They fix the price themselves with a clear understanding in this regard. This understanding among different firms is called collusion.

Art and practice of making coins is called coinage. The metal is melted and moulded to shape into a coin. The coinage is a medium of exchange (money).

Collectivism is a belief that nation's interest is superior to individual interest. This is the collective thinking of the society and polity national leaders and also communist opine the theory of collection.

Commercial Bank
Commercial Bank is an institution of finance. It deals with the banking services through its branches in whole of the country. Operation of current accounts, deposits, granting of loans to individuals and companies etc. are various functions of the commercial bank.

Communism is a political and economic system in which the state makes the major economic decision State owns the bulk of capital assets. Responsibility for production and distribution lies with the state in this system.

Core Sector
Economy needs basic infrastructure for accelerating development. Development of infrastructure industries like cement, iron and steel, petroleum, heavy machinery etc. can only ensure the development of the economy as a whole. Such industries are core sector industries.

Corporation Tax
It is a tax on company's profit. It is a direct tax which is calculated on profits after interest payments and allowance (i.e., Capital allowance) have been deducted but before dividends are allowed for.

Cost-push Inflation
It arises due to an increase in production cost. Such type of inflation is caused by three factors : (i) an increase in wages, (ii) an increase in the profit margin and (iii) imposition of heavy taxation.

Credit Rationing
Credit rationing takes place when the banks discriminates between the borrowers. Credit rationing empowers the bank to lend to some and to refuse to lend to others. In this way credit rationing restricts lending on the part of bank.

Credit Squeeze
Monetary authorities restrict credit as and when required. This credit restriction is called credit squeeze. Monetary authorities adopt the policy of credit squeeze to control inflationary pressure in the economy.

Custom Duty
Custom duty is a duty that is imposed on the products received from exporting nations of the world. It is also called protective duty as it protects the home industries.

Cyclical Unemployment
It is that phase of unemployment which appears due to the occurrence of the downward phase of the trade cycle. Such an employment is reduced or eliminated when the business
cycle turns up again.

Dear Money
Dear money is that money which can only be borrowed at a high rate of interest. In dear money policy, bank rate and other rates of interest are high and as a result borrowing becomes expensive. Dear money policy is deliberate policy which is adopted by the monetary authorities to check inflation in the economy.

Death Duty
It is a direct tax which is imposed on the estate of deceased person. Death duty or Death Tax is a form of personal tax on property which is levied when property passes from one person to other at the time of death of the former.

Death Rate
Death rate signifies the number of deaths in a year per thousand of the population. It is mostly known as crude death rate. Life expectancy is important determinant of death rate.
A country having high life expectancy will have a high crude death rate.

Decentralisation means the establishment of various unit of the same industry at different places. Large scale organisation or industry can not be run at one particular place or territory. In order to increase the efficiency of the industry, various units at different places are located.

Debt Service (Total)
The sum of principal repayments and interest actually paid in foreign currency, goods and services on longterm debt (having maturity of more than one year), interest paid on shortterm debt and repayments to IMF.

Deficit Financing
It is a practice resorted to by modern government of spending more money than it receives in revenue. It is a policy of bridging a deficit between governments expenditure and revenue. Deliberately budgeting for a deficit is called deficit financing. This practice was popularised by Prof. J. M. Keynes to deal with the depression and unemployment situations and to stimulate economic activity. Deficit financing, though having inflationary effects, has now become a common practice in all countries.

Deflation is the reverse case of inflation. Deflation is that state of falling prices which occurs at that time when the output of goods and services increases more rapidly than the volume of money in the economy. In the deflation the general price level falls and the value of money rises.

The loss of value of currency of a country relative to other foreign currency is known as devaluation. Devaluation is a process in which the government deliberately cheapens the exchange value of its own currency in terms of other currency by giving it a lower exchange value. Devaluation is used for improving, the balance of payment situation in the country.

Direct Tax
A tax is said to be a direct tax when it is not intended to be shifted to anybody else. The person who pays it in the first instance is also excepted to bear it. Thus the impact and incidence of direct tax fall on the same person shifting of direct tax is not possible Income Tax is a example of direct tax.

It refers to a process of bringing down prices moderately from their high level without any adverse impact on production and employment. Thus, disinflation is an anti-inflationary measure.

Dissaving occurs when expenditure exceeds income. Raising of loans or utilization of past accumulated savings takes place in such eventuality.

Dividend is the amount which the company distributes to shareholders when the profits of the company are calculated by the board of directors.

Economic Integration
Economic integration appears when two or more nations coordinate themselves and their economies are linked up. It may exhibit itself in the form of free trade area or a full economic union. EEC is an example of economic integration.

Engel's Law
This law was formulated by Ernst Engel. This law states that, with given taste and preference, the portion of income spend on food diminishes as income increases. According to this law, smaller a person's income, the greater the proportion of it that he will spend on food and vice versa.

Estate Duty
It is a tax which is levied on the estate of a decreased person. It is also known as death duty. The ownership of state changes hands only after the payments of the estate duty. It is an progressive tax in nature.

Excise Duty
It is a tax which is imposed on certain indigenous production (e.g., petroleum products, cigarettes etc.) of the country. Excise duty may be imposed either to raise revenue or to check the consumption of the commodities on which they are imposed. Excise duty is progressive in nature.

Face Value
It refers to that normal value of coin at which the coin circulates and is accepted in the discharge of debit or obligation. Broadly speaking, the face value refers to domination stamped on a coin / or documents when it is issued. In securities, it refers to par value.

It is a form of political system. In it every economic consideration rests on one criterion—the increase in the people's standard of living. It also lays emphasis on military
strength and prestige of the country. It is the extreme nationalism and the ultimate goal is self-sufficiency.

Federal Economy
It refers to a federation which is an association of two and more states. A federal state is a union of state in which authority is divided between the federal (or central) government and the state governments. In a federal economy both the centre and the states are independent in the exercise of this authority.

Fiduciary Issue
Generally bank-note are backed by gold. But when they are not backed by gold and government securities replace gold, it is called fiduciary issue. Such fiduciary issue results in inflation.

Fertility Rate
The term fertility refers to the actual bearing of children or ‘occurrence of births’. Fertility rate measures the average number of the live births per 1000 women. This rate is one of the most important and useful aids to population projection. It helps in assessing population trends in the economy.

Fiscal Policy
Fiscal policy is that part of government economic policy which deals with taxation, expenditure, borrowing, and the management of public debt in the economy. Fiscal policy primarily concerns itself with the flow of funds in the economy. Fiscal policy primarily concerns itself with the flow of funds in the economy. It exerts a very powerful influence on the working of economy as a whole.

GEM (Gender Empowerment Measure) is a composite index measuring gender inequality in three basic dimensions of empowerment–economic participation and decision making, political participation and decision making, and power over economic resources.

GDI (Gender Related Development Index) is a composite index measuring average achievement in the three basic dimensions captured in the human development index–a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living–adjusted to account for inequalities between men and women.

It represents the measurement of inequality derived from the ‘Lorenz Curve,’ with every increase in the degree of inequality, the curvature of the Lorenz Curve also increases and
the area between the curve and 45line becomes larger.
The Gini-coefficient is measured as—
G =Area between Lorenz Curve & 45Line/Area above the 45Line

Giffin Goods
Giffin goods have the positive relationship between price and quantity demanded and as a result demand curve of Giffin goods slopes upward from left to right. This phenomenon was first observed by Sir Robert Giffin in relation to the demand for bread by poor labours.

Gresham's Law
“Bad money (if not limited in quantity) drives good money out of circulation”—This statement was given by Sir Thomas Gresham, the economic Adviser of Queen Elizabeth. This law states that people always want to hoard good money and spend bad money when two forms of money are in circulation at the same time.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
It is the money value of all final goods and services produced within the geographical boundaries of the country during a given period of time (usually a year). GDP can be calculated both at current prices and at constant prices. If we add net factor income from abroad to the GDP, we get ‘Gross National Product’ (GNP).

Gross National Product (GNP)
It refers to the money value of total output or production of final goods and services produced by the nationals of a country during a given period of time, generally a year.

Gross National Product Deflator
It is a Price Index Number used to correct the money value of Gross National Product (GNP) for price changes so as to isolate the changes which have taken place in the physical output of goods and services.

Guild Socialism
This form of socialism accepts the leadership of artisans. The operation of the whole economy specially the management and control of industries lies in the hands of artisans Socialism established by artisans is termed a Guild Socialism.

HDI (Human Development Index) is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human life–a long and healthy life, knowledge and a decent standard of living.

Import Duty
Import duty is a tax on imports imposed on an ad-valorem basis i.e., fixed in the form of a percentage on the value of the commodity imported.

Indirect Tax
Indirect tax is that tax which is levied on goods or services produced or purchased. Indirect taxes are those which are demanded from one person in the expectation and intention that he shall indemnify himself at the expense to another.

A situation of a steady and sustained rise in general prices is usually known as inflation. Inflation is a state in which the value of money is falling i.e., prices are rising.

Joint Demand
Joint demand appears in case of complementary goods. When two commodities are complementary to one another and cannot be used separately, they have joint demand. Bread and butter, sugar and tea, pen and ink are a few examples of joint demand. In joint demand a change in demand of one commodity bring about the proportionate change in demand for the other.

Joint Sector
When a sector is jointly owned, managed and run by both public and private sector, it is called joint sector. This sector indicates the partnership between the two i.e., public and private sector.

Labour Union
Labour union represents that organisation of workers which works for improving working condition of labours and also for raising their wage by adopting ‘collective bargaining’ measures with the management of the industry in particular.

Laffer Curve
This curve is given by American economist Prof. Arthur Laffer. It represents relationship between total tax revenue and corresponding tax rates.

Laissez Faire
It is a French word meaning ‘non-interference’. This doctrine was popularised by classical economists who gave the view that government should interfere as little as possible in the economic activities of the individuals.

Life Expectancy at Birth
The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing pattern of age specific mortality rates at the time of birth were to stay the same throughout the child’s life.

It refers to the termination (or winding up) of a registered company. Liquidation takes place because of company's insolvency. In liquidation, assets are turned into cash for settling outstanding debts and for apportioning the balance, if any, amongst the owners.

Assets which can easily be converted into cash money are said to have liquidity. Land does not possess liquidity at it takes longer time to get converted into cash.

Liquidity Ratio
The commercial banks under banking regulations have to maintain a certain specified proportion of their total deposits of various categories in liquid assets. This maintainable proportion is called liquidity ratio.

Lock-out refers to such a situation when the management does not permit the workers to work unless they agree to accept the employer's term. Lock-out is the closing of work by the management for an uncertain period of time to put pressure on the labour union. It is an action by the employer equivalent to a strike by employees.

Lorentz Curve
This curve shows the degree of inequalities of a frequency distribution in a graphical manner. It is a curve on a graph which shows the cumulative proportion of a statistical population against this cumulative share of some characteristic. This curve is commonly used to depict income distribution showing the cumulative percentage of people from the poorest up and their cumulative share of national income.

Lump Sum Tax
Lump sum tax is a fixed amount which has imperative nature irrespective of the income level. This tax is not equitable in nature.

Merit Goods
Merit goods refer those goods that are very essential to the society as a whole and hence the government ensures their availability to all consumers, regardless of their ability to pay to reasonable price.

Mixed Economy
It refers to that economic system in which both private and public sector co-exists. Indian economy is an example of a mixed economy.

Monetary Policy
Monetary policy comprises all measures applied by the monetary authorities with a view to produce a deliberate impact on the nature and volume of money so as to achieve the objectives of general economic policy. It aims at regulating the flow of currency, credit and other money substitutes in an economy with a view to affect the total stock of such assets as well as to influence the demand of the community for such assets.

Monetary Reforms
When a new currency is introduced in a country due to hyperinflation or due to a deliberate policy measure (such as decimalization) it is termed as monetary reform.

Monopoly refers to that market structure where there is only one seller in the market who controls the entire market supply and no substitute of the product is available in the market.

Monopsony is that market situation in which there is only one single buyer of the product in the market. In other word, ‘buyer's monopoly’ is termed as monopsony.

Multinational Company
It is a large scale company which has its production base in several countries and the bulk of the production is produced in outside nations. This company produces more overseas
than they do in its parent country. Increased trade and economies of scale have encouraged such type of companies in the recent years.

National Income
In the simplest way it can be defined as ‘factor income accruing to the national residents of a country.’ It is the sum of domestic factor income and net factor income earned from abroad. Net national product at factor cost is called national income.

Net National Product (NNP)
When depreciation is deducted from GNP i.e., Gross National Product, we get Net National Product (NNP).

Oligopoly is that form of imperfect competition in which there are only a few firms in the industry (or group) producing either homogeneous products or may be having product differentiation in a given line of production.

Open Economy
Open economy is that economy which is left free and the government imposes no restrictions on trade with areas outside that economy.

Okun’s Law
Arthur Okun presented an empirical relationship between cyclical movements in GNP and unemployment. Okun found that an annual 2•5% increase in the rate of real growth above the trend growth results in a 1% decrease in the rate of unemployment. This relationship is known as Okun’s Law.

Perfect Competition
Perfect competition is the market in which there are many firms selling identical products with no firm large enough relative to the entire market to be able to influence market price.

Poverty Line
Poverty line is a virtual line demarcating persons living below and above it. In India all those persons are treated living below poverty line who are not able to earn that much of income which is not sufficient to acquire food equivalent to 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas and 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas. As per UNDP, one US dollar (1993 PPP US $) per person per day is treated as poverty line.

PQLI is known as Physical Quality of Life Index which is used to assess the level of social development. This index was developed by Jim Grant for The Overseas Development Council PQLI is calculated by using indices of (i) Adult literacy rate, (ii) IMR, (iii) Life Expectancy.

Price Mechanism
Price mechanism signifies the working of those market forces which establishes equilibrium in the economy. Laissez faire policy is the basis for the working of price mechanism.

Price Ring
It is an unofficial syndicate by which the prices are controlled with the prior understanding among the traders. These dealers under a price ring decide not to over-bid one another at the public auction to keep the prices low. This price ring may discourage outsiders from coming to the auctions.

Private Sector
Private Sector is that part of the economy which is not owned by the government and is under the hands of private enterprise. In other words, private sector is not under direct government control. Private sector includes the personal as well as the corporate sector.

Privatisation is the antithesis of nationalisation. When the government owned public industries are denationalised and the disinvestment process is initiated, it is called privatisation.

Public Debt
Public debt represents borrowing by the state and public authorities. All loans taken by the public authorities constitute public debt.

Public Goods
Public goods are those goods which belong to the entire community. None of the individual of the society can be made deprived of using these public goods. National defence, Police, Street lighting etc. are examples of public goods.

Public Sector
Public sector signifies those undertakings which are owned, managed and run by public authorities. Public sector includes direct government enterprise, the nationalized industries and public corporations. In this sector of the economy the government acts itself as an entrepreneur.

Peril Point
It indicates that point beyond which tariff reductions would threaten the existence of domestic industry.

Quick Asset
Those assets are quick assets which are liquid or nearly liquid in nature and easily be turned into cash.

Quoted Company
That company is called quoted company whose share prices are quoted on a stock exchange.

It signifies general increase in the level of business activity in the economy. Reflation generally involves greater government expenditure and the easing of credit to encourage increased production.

Regressive Tax
It is a tax in which rate of taxation falls with an increase in income. In regressive taxation incidence falls more on people having lower incomes than that of those having higher incomes.

Repressed Inflation
It is a state in which aggregate demand is greater than the total supply of goods and services in an economy, but prices are prevented from rising to eliminate excess demand. The holding down of price is sometimes done by government as a means of suppressing inflation.

Reserve Asset Ratio
It is the ratio of a bank’s reserve assets to its eligible liabilities.

Revolving Credit
It is a bank credit that is renewed automatically until notice of cancellation is received. Revolving credits may be sanctioned for an unlimited amount in total but with a limit on
the amount that may be drawn at any one time or within a specified period, e.g., one month.

Seasonal Unemployment
It is that unemployment which is caused by seasonal variation in demand for labour by various industries, such as agriculture, construction and tourism. Seasonal unemployment
normally declines in spring as more outdoor work can be undertaken.

Security refers to a share, bond or government stock that can be bought and sold, usually on the stock exchange or on a secondary market, and carries a right to some form of income, either in the form of a fixed rate of interest or dividends.

Shadow Price
It is an imputed value for a good based on the opportunity costs of the resources used to produce it such values are of particular significance in resolving problems of resource allocating with respect to the effect on welfare.

Share Capital
It is the amount of money raised by a company by issuing shares. The authorized share capital is the amount that a company is allowed to issue as laid down in its Articles of Association. The issued share capital is the amount actually issued i.e., the number of issued shares multiplied by their par value. Fully paid share capital is the amount raised by payment of the full par value of the issued shares.

Single Tax System
It is a system in which all tax revenues are raised from one form of taxation.

The political doctrine that the means of production (machines, materials and output) should be owned by society and specifically either by the state, as in the case of nationalized industries or by the workers directly, as in the case of producer co-operatives.

Social Security
Provision by the state out of taxation of welfare assistance to those in need as a result of illness, unemployment, or old age compare national insurance refers to social security.

Soft Currency
A currency with limited convertibility into gold and other currencies, either because it is depreciating due to balance of payments difficulties or because controls have been placed on it to prevent the exchange rate falling.

Special Drawing Rights (SDRs)
It is a reserve asset (known as ‘Paper Gold’) created within the framework of the International Monetary Fund in an attempt to increase international liquidity, and now forming a part of countries official reserves along with gold, reserve positions in the IMF and convertible foreign currencies.

Special Tax (Unit Tax)
It is a tax imposed per unit of a commodity rather than on the value of the commodity compare ad-valorem.

Stabilization Policy
It is Government economic policy announced at reducing the cyclical and other fluctuations that take place in a market economy.

It is a state of the economy in which economic activity is slowing down, but wages and prices continue to rise. The term is a blend of the words stagnation and inflation.

Surplus Value
It is the difference between the amount paid to a factor and the revenue earned by selling the output it produced.

It is a tax or a duty on imports, which can be levied either on physical units, e.g., per tonne (specific), or on value (ad-valorem). Tariffs may be imposed for a variety of reasons including; to raise government revenue, to protect domestic industry from subsidized or low-wage imports, to boost domestic employment, or to ease a deficit on the balance of payments.

Trade Gap
It signifies the size of the deficit (or surplus) in the balance of trade i.e., the difference in value between visible imports and exports.

Trade Union
It is an organisation of employees who join together to further their interests. Trade Unions negotiate on behalf of their members in collective bargaining with employers, and in the event of a dispute may put pressure on employers by withdrawing labour (i.e. strike) or by some less drastic form of action (i.e. go-slow, working to rule).

Transfer Payment
It is a payment made by public authority other than one made in exchange for goods or services produced. Transfer payments are not the part of National Income. Examples includes unemployment benefit and child benefits.

Vital Statistics
Vital statistics refers to those data which are associated with vital events of masses like birth, death, marriage divorce etc.

VAT (Value Added Tax)
VAT seeks to tax the value added at every stage of manufacturing and sale, with a provision of refunding the amount of VAT already paid at the earlier stages to avoid double taxation. In other words, the tax already paid can be claimed at the next stage of value addition.

Wealth Tax
Wealth tax is that tax which is imposed on the value of total assets but the wealth upto a certain limit is exempted from such tax.

Welfare State
It refers to a nation that provides to all at least the minimum standards in respect of education, health, housing, pensions and other social benefits.

Wholesale Price Index
Wholesale Price Index is that index which is calculated on the basis of wholesale prices. It is calculated in a similar way to the Retail Price Index.